At the beginning of XIX century the present European Square (Space) was called the Horse, because there were horse fairs. The present-day European Square has become Teatralnaya (Theatre) Square when, in 1805, by order of the city governor A.Tormasov, the first theater in Kiev was built. In 1851, the theater was demolished, and at this place the architect A. Beretta built a three-story hotel "Europe", from which the area got its name. The mere fact that the city had no sanitation, public water supply, electricity, and in the hotel all these creature comforts were available, indicates that it was considered to be the best not only in the city, but in all surrounding areas. After a while, there were even telephones in the rooms, it was indescribable luxury at the time. The building of the Lenin Museum was there in Soviet time, then after the proclamation of sovereignty it has become "Ukrainian House".
Value and uniqueness of area at all times were largely determined by scenic parks located on the adjacent slopes of the Dnieper. The first of them, the size of which was 20 hectares, was founded in 1741. It took seven years to ennoble this area with alleys and walkways. In course of time, due to improvement of the slopes, the park grew to 50 acres. In the 30th years of the XIX century park "Volodymyr Hill" was laid nearby.
In 1869, when the city for the first time (on the order of the Czar) put in order its own names, European Square was renamed into the Royal. Such suggestion was made due to the fact that the horse fairs hadn’t carried out, and trace of the theater building long disappeared. It was dismantled "for decrepitude" in 1851, and the new "for show booth" built elsewhere.
In the mid 19th century, the central motif of the European Square was Fountain, named in honor of governor I.Funduklya. In 1882, on the right side of Vladimir, at that time Alexander descent, Merchant Assembly was built - an off-the-wall club of Kiev merchants. By lapse of time, there by turns were placed the Proletarian art house, the House of communist education, the Bolshevik Club, the Palace of Pioneers. From 1934 to the present day is the National Philharmonic of M. Lysenko in the building.
With the advent of Soviet power this Square was deprived the former name, and they called it firstly the Square of the III-rd Internationale - then veneer statue of the Red Army was installed at its center, and later, in 1944 - Stalin Sq., in 1961 - Lenin Komsomol Sq. Its historical name "European" square obtained in 1991, when Ukraine became independent.
European Square is also famous for the fact that in the Russian Empire in 1892 for the first time the electric tram began the regular movement. This historic tram line had been existing here for 85 years. In 1977, it was disassembled. European Square in Kiev has played and keeps on playing an important role in the life of the city. There were political demonstrations, protests and rallies. Nowadays it is one of the cultural and historical center of the city. There are: Ukrainian House, which regularly hosts various exhibitions, hotel "Dnepr", National Philharmonic, children's puppet theater, Library of Parliament, the Central Office UNIAN etc.